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Jordon Scrinko
Published by Jordon Scrinko
Last Updated On: May 20, 2024

What Is the Condominium Act? (A Complete Guide)

From my professional experience, understanding the Condominium Act is crucial for both condo owners and prospective buyers. It outlines the rights and responsibilities of all parties involved, ensuring that the properties are managed effectively and fairly.

Are you wondering how the Condominium Act specifically protects your investment and what your obligations are as a condo owner?

Let’s dive deeper into the key provisions of the Act and how they affect day-to-day condo living.

Quick Summary

  • The Condominium Act establishes the legal description framework for the condominium form of ownership, clearly defining the ownership rights for individual units and common areas, the obligations of unit owners for maintenance, and the roles of condominium associations in governance. 
  • Unit owners are responsible for maintaining the interiors of their units, while the condo association manages common elements. 
  • The Condominium Act applies to over 1.3 million condominium units across Canada, reflecting the significant portion of housing managed under this legislation.
  • Recent developments in condominium law adapt to societal and environmental changes, incorporating elements like EV charging stations and drought-resistant landscaping to promote sustainable living within condo communities.

The Basics of the Condominium Act

The Condominium Act, also known as the Condo Act, is a legal framework that serves as the backbone of condominium ownership. It’s like a rule book that delineates the separate ownership rights of individual units and common areas within a condominium building.

The Act regulates how the building and its shared areas are jointly owned and managed and ensures that the rights and responsibilities of unit owners, residents, and the condominium corporation are clearly defined and protected. It’s in the Building Code.

But the Condominium Act isn’t just about rules and regulations; it’s about fostering a sense of community and shared responsibility amongst condominium owners.

But how did this all come about? And what are the key principles that underpin the Condominium Act? Let’s delve deeper into the Act’s history and key principles.


Key Principles

At the heart of the Condominium Act lies a unique attribute of condominium ownership – the individual ownership of units and shared undivided interest in common areas expressly provided [1]. Think of it like owning a slice of a cake and sharing the rest with others.

The individual unit, including the airspace and any other improvements thereon, being a part of the block and lot for tax purposes, the defined unit boundaries, represent separate interests.

On the other hand, the shared ownership of common elements like lobbies, swimming pools, and hallways is a fundamental principle under the Condominium Act in a common interest community.

These common elements are all parts of the belongings not included within the individual units, and their maintenance and repair are typically the responsibility of the condominium association.

This framework ensures that while you enjoy your space, the common ownership solely of these shared areas is well-maintained for all to enjoy.

Rights and Obligations of Unit Owners

As a unit owner, the Condominium Act vests you with specific responsibilities in maintaining your property. After all, a well-maintained unit not only enhances your living experience but also contributes to the overall maintenance of the condominium. But what exactly does this entail?

In essence, as a unit owner, you are obligated to maintain the interior structures and fixtures of your individual units. This includes everything from your unit’s interior surfaces and fixtures to appliances. On the other hand, the maintenance of common areas within the condominium property is the responsibility of the condominium association.

However, maintaining a condominium goes beyond just keeping the units and common areas clean and tidy. It involves a deeper understanding of the obligations set forth in the Condominium Act and the specific roles of unit owners and the condominium association. Let’s take a closer look at the role of unit owners in maintenance and upkeep.

Maintenance and Upkeep

The maintenance and upkeep of a condominium are shared responsibilities that require the collective effort of all unit owners and the condominium association.

As a unit owner, you are required to:

  • Maintain the interior of your units, conducting regular cleaning and inspections
  • Promptly address repairs to prevent exacerbation of issues
  • Perform preventive maintenance tasks, such as HVAC system checks and ensuring window seals to prevent drafts

The maintenance responsibility of a unit owner typically includes the interior surfaces, walls, floors, fixtures, and appliances within their own unit. On the flip side, the condominium association manages the upkeep of common elements such as the building’s exterior and landscaping, with funding primarily sourced from member dues.

Limited common elements like balconies or patios generally fall under the maintenance responsibilities of the specific unit owners who use them, with possible involvement by the condo association.

Association fees paid by unit owners are crucial for the maintenance and repair of common areas, and unit owners often participate in decision-making regarding these shared spaces.

Condominium Associations and Governance

Condominium associations play a pivotal role in the day-to-day operations of the condominium. They manage the property collectively on behalf of all unit owners, ensuring that the condominium remains a harmonious and well-maintained living space.

The structure of a condominium association includes the individual ownership of units and joint ownership of common areas.

To streamline operations, condominium associations may employ management companies to help with functions such as the collection of dues. Financial transparency within the condominium association is maintained by making financial statements available to unit owners.

This ensures that all unit owners are in the loop about the financial management of the condominium.

Condominium associations are also responsible for making decisions that affect the condominium as a whole. For example, condominium boards have the responsibility to approve or deny requests like electric vehicle charging system installations within certain timeframes. But how is a condominium board structured, and what are the roles and responsibilities of its members? Let’s find out.

Board of Directors

The condominium board’s primary role is to operate the Condominium Corporation with a focus on protecting the owners’ investments.

Board members are volunteers who aim to represent the community’s residents, with roles such as:

  • President
  • Vice President
  • Secretary
  • Treasurer
  • Property Manager

The roles within the board are as follows:

  • President: leads the board, oversees operations and meetings, and acts as the primary contact for the property manager
  • Vice President: assists the president by assuming additional tasks as needed
  • Secretary: ensures that meeting proceedings are accurately documented and publicly accessible.

The responsibilities of the Board of Directors include:

  • Making decisions on financial management
  • Maintaining common areas
  • Enforcing rules and bylaws
  • Determining the allocation of common charges among owners

These responsibilities greatly influence the financial aspect of condominium management.

Bylaws and Rules

Condominium bylaws are the foundational regulations that govern the operation of a condominium corporation, covering aspects such as board elections, fee collections, and rule establishment.

They are binding on all condo unit owners, renters, and visitors, and failure to comply can lead to penalties or legal action. It’s, therefore, crucial that all residents and visitors are aware of and understand these bylaws.

In addition to bylaws, condominium associations also enforce rules designed to manage common concerns in day-to-day living within a condominium. These rules aim to complement bylaws and promote a comfortable environment for all residents.

A property manager is often tasked with assisting the board in implementing policies, maintaining the property, and ensuring adherence to bylaws.

Unit owners exercise their rights through voting on significant matters within the community such as the election of board members, approval of annual budget, and amendment of bylaws and rules. This ensures that all unit owners, including other condominium owners, have a say in the running and management of the condominium.

Financial Aspects of Condominium Ownership

Purchasing a condominium unit is not just about acquiring a physical space; it’s also about understanding the financial obligations that come with it. The condominium association typically insures the building and common areas, leaving individual unit owners responsible for insuring their personal property, including belongings and liability.

The treasurer of the condo board plays a critical role in:

  • Preparing the budget
  • Overseeing the financial well-being of the condominium
  • Managing the funds for the maintenance and repair of common areas
  • Ensuring that all unit owners are up-to-date with their dues.

Understanding the financial aspects of condominium ownership involves delving into the specifics of common charges and such assessments, as well as how reserve accounts and studies are managed.

Common Expenses and Assessments

Common expenses in a condominium include maintenance, repair, and replacement of common elements, such as building painting, roof repair, exterior ground maintenance, and casualty insurance.

These costs are shared among all unit owners, who are personally liable for their personal property share of the regular expenses, as assessed in any manner provided by the condominium association.

The frequency of collecting common expense assessments can vary. The governing documents of the homeowners association determine whether common expense assessments are collected monthly, quarterly, or annually.

Association fees paid by unit owners are crucial for the maintenance and repair of common areas. These funds also help finance community insurance, a budgetary requirement for condominium associations.

Reserve Accounts and Studies

In addition to regular maintenance costs, condominium associations are mandated by the Condominium Act, and condominium documents mean the master deed, recorded pursuant to this act to set up reserve funds. These funds serve as a financial resource for major maintenance or repairs as a common expense.

Maintaining reserve funds is essential to:

  • Prevent the imposition of special assessments to homeowners for future or emergency expenses
  • Ensure the financial stability of the condominium
  • Protect the appurtenant interest of all unit owners.

Dealing with Disputes and Legal Issues

As with any community, disputes and legal issues can arise in a condominium. These can range from minor disagreements over bylaw interpretations to major issues such as Defect Construction claims. Bylaws are binding on all condo unit owners, renters, and visitors, and failure to comply can lead to penalties or legal action.

Condominium corporations have the authority to enforce bylaws and can levy sanctions for violations, which are to be reasonable and detailed within the bylaws. However, it’s important to note that amendments to bylaws only gain legal enforceability after being recorded with the Land Titles Office and noted on the condominium additional plan sheet.

Construction Defect Claims

It can arise from issues with building materials, workmanship, or design and can involve structural flaws, water seepage, or faulty installations. Developers, design professionals, and contractors are among the parties that can be held liable under the Condominium Act, depending on their contribution to building defects.

Independent experts are often called upon by condominium associations to provide testimony in court regarding the origins and causes of the construction defects. Condominium associations are responsible for documenting and managing temporary repairs meticulously while construction defect litigation is in progress.

In lawsuits over construction defects, the primary damages sought are the expenses related to the repair or replacement of the flawed construction elements. Unit owners can bring Defect Construction claims under the Condominium Act for issues affecting both their individual units and common property within the condominium.

Dispute Resolution Mechanisms

Alternative dispute resolution processes such as mediation and arbitration can be options for resolving conflicts in condominium communities. These methods aim to facilitate amicable settlements, helping to maintain harmony within the community.

Mediation and arbitration can specifically address issues arising from the application or interpretation of the Condominium Property Act, its regulations, or a condominium’s bylaws between unit owners and the association.

For contentious condominium disputes that require legal resolution, the Court of King’s Bench serves as a venue, although it may entail significant expense and typically necessitates obtaining legal counsel. Thus, alternative dispute resolution processes are often the preferred methods for resolving conflicts in a condominium community.

Special Considerations for Conversion Condominiums

Conversion condominiums offer a unique form of property ownership. They allow property owners to share control over the property while maintaining individual ownership of a specific unit. However, this form of condo ownership comes with its own set of considerations.

When a property is converted into a condominium, certain requirements must be met, including providing notice to tenants and local municipalities and upholding the rights of tenants during the conversion process. Let’s take a closer look at these considerations.

Notice Requirements

The Condominium Act mandates that declarants and dealers provide such notice to each tenant and the local municipality upon converting a property into a condominium. This notice must include, at a minimum, the number of respective units intended for conversion, the proposed date of conversion, the rights of the tenants under the Condominium Act, and the master deed.

In addition to tenant notice, the declarant or dealer must provide information about the conversion project to the local municipality, which may include the timing, scope, and nature of the project. If declarants or dealers fail to properly notify tenants and the municipality of the conversion, they can face significant penalties under the Condominium Act.

Tenant Rights and Relocation Assistance

When a property is converted into a condominium, tenants have certain rights. They must be notified by declarants and dealers at least 120 days before they are required to vacate for condominium conversion, and they’re given a 60-day exclusive option to purchase their unit [2].

The notice to vacate must include rights information, resources from the condominium conversion tenant-to-homeowner program, and details on local relocation assistance programs.

Tenants who choose not to purchase their unit are entitled to relocation assistance if they meet income requirements, which may not exceed three months’ rent. Elderly or special needs tenants may receive relocation assistance covering actual moving expenses up to a certain amount, often in addition to other relocation aid.

These protections ensure that tenants’ rights are upheld during the conversion process, promoting fairness and transparency.

Recent Developments and Trends in Condominium Law

As society evolves, so do the laws that govern it. Condominium laws are no exception. They are adapting to societal changes and technological advances, such as the growing popularity of electric vehicles and the increasing importance of water conservation.

Condominium bylaws are being amended to align with updates in the Condominium Act and Regulation, which may now include provisions for EV charging stations and the use of drought-resistant landscaping.

Let’s explore these recent developments and trends in condominium law, starting with the incorporation of EV charging stations in condominiums.

Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

With the rise in the popularity of electric vehicles, condominium laws are being updated to support the inclusion of these stations in designated parking spaces within condominium development rights. This is a significant step towards promoting sustainable living in condominium communities and reflects the increasing demand for electric vehicles.

The inclusion of these stations in condominium laws not only caters to the needs of electric vehicle owners but also enhances the appeal of the condominium to potential buyers who value sustainable living options.

Drought-Resistant Landscaping

Along with EV charging stations, drought-resistant landscaping is another emerging trend in condominium law. Condominium declarations, bylaws, or rules cannot prohibit the use of drought-resistant or wildfire ignition-resistant landscaping and can only enforce reasonable rules regarding their placement and appearance.

This is a significant move towards promoting:

  • water conservation
  • wildfire prevention
  • sustainable living
  • the role of condominium communities in fostering such practices

It also reflects the growing consciousness towards sustainable living and the role of condominium communities in fostering such practices.


What are the key principles of the Condominium Act?

The key principles of the Condominium Act revolve around individual ownership of units and shared respective interests in common areas within a condominium building. These principles are fundamental to understanding the rights and responsibilities of condominium owners.

What are the maintenance responsibilities of a unit owner?

As a unit owner, you are responsible for maintaining the interior of your unit, including regular cleaning, inspections, and addressing repairs promptly.

What is the role of a condominium board?

The role of a condominium board is to operate the corporation, protect owners’ investments, make financial decisions, maintain common areas, and enforce rules and bylaws. It plays a crucial role in managing the condominium community and ensuring its well-being.

What are conversion condominiums?

Conversion condominiums allow property owners to share control over the property while maintaining individual ownership of a specific unit. This arrangement is popular for properties such as apartment buildings or office spaces.

What are some recent developments in condominium law?

Recent developments in condominium law involve the inclusion of EV charging stations and the use of drought-resistant landscaping in condominiums. These changes aim to promote sustainability and address the growing demand for electric vehicles.

Enhancing Condo Life Through Legislative Understanding

Navigating the legal landscape of the Condominium Act may seem complex, but with the right knowledge and understanding, it can be empowering.

This guide has delved into the intricacies of condo ownership, from the rights and obligations of unit owners to the roles of condominium associations and governance structures and common areas. We’ve also explored the financial aspects of condo ownership and how disputes and legal issues are dealt with under the Condominium Act.

As we’ve seen, condominium laws are continuously evolving to reflect societal changes and technological advances. As a unit owner or potential buyer, staying updated with these laws can help you make informed decisions and enjoy a harmonious living experience in your condominium community.

If you have any questions or if you want to read more similar articles, visit Precondo.ca


  1. https://www.condoauthorityontario.ca/before-you-buy-or-rent-a-condo/how-condos-work/governing-documents/the-condo-act/#:~:text=The%20Condominium%20Act%20is%20a,documents%20must%20not%20contradict%20it
  2. https://vancouver.ca/people-programs/renter-rights-and-relocation-assistance-due-to-redevelopment.aspx

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